The European community and health care settings are facing a dramatic increase in infections caused by MDR-GNB, with few effective therapeutic options remaining in the armamentarium of clinicians. There are no truly new antimicrobial agents against MDR-GNB expected on the market in the short or medium term. Even if new agents were to come to market, on their own, they could not solve the resistance problem. Effective measures to contain resistance and limit the spread of MDR-GNB are therefore urgently needed to protect the health and well-being of the people in Europe and world-wide. We are confronted with a formidable enemy, equipped with sophisticated molecular methods to express and exchange resistance genes, capable of colonizing multiple reservoirs, and harbouring a bewildering array of virulence factors to infect any suitable host, both the hospitalised frail and healthy people living in the community.